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It is delivered to our customers in liquid form, into onsite storage, for use in high-volume customer applications.
Carbon dioxide is stored as a liquid in a specialised vessels which can provide several days' supply and be used on demand as either a liquid or gas.
- Colourless gas
- Heavier than air
- Dissolved in water, it forms carbonic acid, (H2CO3)
- Inert to most materials at normal temperatures and pressures
- Forms dry ice when expanded to atmospheric pressure
- Carbon dioxide: 99.9%v/v
- Moisture: 20 ppm
- Oxygen: 30 ppm
- Carbon monoxide: 5 ppm
- NOx (each): 2.5 ppm
- Ammonia: 2.5 ppm
- Total hydrocarbons (as methane): 50 ppm
- Benzene: 0.02
- Acetaldehyde: 0.2
- Total sulphur (as S): 0.1 ppm
- Non volatile organic residues: 5 ppm
- Non volatile residues: 10 ppm
- Acidity: To pass JEFCA test
- Taste and odour in water: No foreign
- All figures are expressed in parts per million (ppm) by volume unless otherwise stated
- This specification conforms with the EIGA guideline specification IGC 70/99/EFD "Carbon Dioxide Source Certification, Quality Standards and Verification"
- Analysis methods comply, where applicable, with IGC/70/99 guidelines
- The product complies with the requirements (E290) of EC Directive 2000/63/EC on food additives and with European Pharmacopeia.
Applications and use
Carbon dioxide's normal sublimation temperature of -78 °C makes it a useful expendable refrigerant for applications such as:
- Food freezing - used like liquid nitrogen and especially suitable for blender chilling applications using dry ice snow.
- Food chilling - to provide optimum ingredient viscosity and handling characteristics in chilled blenders. Use as dry ice for in-transit refrigeration as a better alternative to water ice.
Carbon dioxide is highly soluble in water at moderate pressure, and in oils and plastics at elevated pressures. This leads to its use in:
- Beverage packaging - to carbonate chilled beverages before closing containers.
- Beverage dispensing - to carbonate soft drinks using post-mix systems that mix water, syrup and carbon dioxide at the point of use.
- Enhanced Oil Recovery - solubility in liquid hydrocarbons is used to increase flow of oil by reducing viscosity, increasing volume and stimulating flow.
In its liquid form, carbon dioxide is a selective solvent for a number of substances, and at supercritical pressure it is an even stronger solvent. Its dryness prevents damage to sensitive materials. It is therefore used for:
- Coating - supercritical carbon dioxide is used as a thinner for sprayed paints and coatings, reducing organic solvent by 80%.
- Carrier gas - for dissolving aromas, deodorants, pesticides and bactericides.
- Food extraction - flavouring and colouring extraction in liquid carbon dioxide, selective removal of oils and fats from food with supercritical carbon dioxide.
- Industrial extraction and separation - supercritical carbon dioxide for chemical and pharmaceutical processes or as a substitute for hydrocarbon based solvent in metal degreasing.
Carbon dioxide is chemically reactive at elevated temperatures and this characteristic is used for:
- Metal melting and refining - for foundry sand moulding, and for the reduction of red oxide formation with snow, during furnace tapping.
- Water treatment - to aid dissolution of lime in soft water to produce a less corrosive and more healthy water supply.
- Waste treatment - a safer-to-handle alternative to mineral acids for pH control in aqueous waste and streams from sodium hydroxide operations such as bottle washing, fruit peeling and textile processing.
- Life support - mixed with oxygen and other gases to stimulate deeper and faster breathing in human and help the treatment of respiratory problems.
- Enhanced photosynthesis - by boosting the carbon dioxide concentration in greenhouses and plastic tunnels.
Liquid carbon dioxide forms Dry Ice when expanded to atmosphere pressure, which is used in:
- Pellet blasting cleaning - dry ice pellets are blasted at the surface to create embrittlement and abrasive action to strip aircraft paint, remove deposits from turbines and remove radioactive contamination from plants and machinery.
- Snow cleaning - small dry ice particles are blasted at surfaces to dislodge foreign particles, oil and grease, and is also used with ultra high purity carbon dioxide (UHP) to clean optical systems, semiconductor devices and LCD screens.
Carbon dioxide's inertness to most substances at ambient to moderate temperatures leads to its use in:
- Fire suppression - snow and gas extinguish flames by a combination of cooling, exclusion of air from the fire and blanketing the root of the flames.
- Welding - pure carbon dioxide is cheaper and more readily available than argon as a shielding gas, but its use is limited by its reactivity to steel and tendency to spatter.
- Inerting and Purging - carbon dioxide offers a cheaper but generally less effective alternative to nitrogen. The high density of carbon dioxide offers an advantage if the process is improved by the tendency of the inert gas to stay in place rather than quickly mix with the atmosphere above it.
- Industries that use carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide's properties give it a key role across many industries such as:
- Food and Beverages - for chilling and freezing, for carbonation and dispensing of beverages, for food extraction, for Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) and dry ice for in-transit refrigeration.
- Laboratories and Research - dry ice pellets for cooling baths in experiments.
- Oil and Gas - for the Enhanced Oil Recovery process.
- Chemicals - as a replacement for CFC's in foamed plastics production.
- Electronics - use of snow cleaning for devices.
- Agriculture - to boost production in greenhouses and pest control in grain silos.
- Healthcare - to treat respiratory disorders and for surgical dilation.
- Environment, water and waste - for drinking water treatment and waste water pH control.
- The use of carbon dioxide in welding, inerting and purging applications as well as in fire suppression makes it a very useful gas across a wide range of other industries too.
- Carbon dioxide is an inert gas that can cause oxygen depletion inducing asphyxiation and death. The risk of asphyxiation is exacerbated by the fact that carbon dioxide is heavier than air which allows it to flow downwards and collect in low lying areas far from its origin. The danger is slightly mitigated by the fact that carbon dioxide in dangerous concentrations causes a choking sensation which can be used as a warning sign.
- Dry Ice is a very cold solid that sublimes to become an asphyxiant gas.
- Dry Ice is also capable of inflicting serious frost bite.
- See Safety Data Sheet for further information.
|Specific gravity at 70°F/21°C||1.105|
|Critical temperature (°F/°C)||87.8/30.1|
|Critical pressure (psia)||1071|
|Specific volume (cf/lb)||8.74|
|Other properties||Tasteless,colourless, odourless, non-flammable|